文章摘要
三聚氰胺基聚醚多元醇的合成及对硬质聚氨酯泡沫阻燃性能的影响
Preparation and Fire Properties of Rigid Polyurethane Foams Made from Melamine Based Polyether Polyol
  
DOI:10.16865/j.cnki.1000-7555.2018.03.001
中文关键词: 三聚氰胺基聚醚多元醇  聚氨酯硬泡  热性能  物理-力学性能  阻燃性能
英文关键词: melamine based polyether polyol  rigid polyurethane foams  thermal property  physical-mechanical properties  flame retardant properties
基金项目:国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划)(2013AA032003)
作者单位
刘艳林,何吉宇,杨荣杰 国家阻燃材料工程技术研究中心 北京理工大学材料学院,北京 100081 
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中文摘要:
      合成了一种新型的三聚氰胺基聚醚多元醇(HMMM-PG),产物包含5种不同程度醚交换的产物,其相对含量由大到小依次为:HMMM-PG6,HMMM-PG5,HMMM-PG3,HMMM-PG4和HMMM-PG2,产物的平均羟值为447 mg KOH/g。使用HMMM-PG与多异氰酸酯反应,采用一步发泡法制备了硬质聚氨酯泡沫,并引入阻燃剂甲基磷酸二甲酯(DMMP)、氢氧化铝(ATH)、聚磷酸铵(APP)和膨胀石墨(EG),研究了以HMMM-PG 为多元醇基体时,阻燃聚氨酯硬泡的物理-力学性能、热性能及阻燃性能,探索出一种兼具优异的物理-力学性能,热性能和阻燃性能的配方。在10phrDMMP、5phrATH、15phrAPP和20phrEG的阻燃配方中,泡沫的压缩强度达到0.22MPa,同时,泡沫的热稳定性和成炭性得到提高。扫描电镜图像显示,ATH 降解生成绒毛状物质,同时APP降解生成高交联度的多聚磷酸,均覆盖在残炭表面,致使残炭更加致密,在燃烧过程中可以阻隔热量和可燃性气体向基体的传播。EG膨胀后形成的蠕虫状蓬松炭层也可以有效地起到隔热隔质的屏蔽作用,从而起到优异的阻燃效果。
英文摘要:
      A novel melamine-based polyether polyol (HMMM-PG) was synthesized, which consisted of five different ether exchange products HMMM-PG5, HMMM-PG3, HMMM-PG4 and HMMM-PG2 in descending content order.The relative hydroxyl content of the productsis 447 mg KOH/g. A series of rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared by the reaction of HMMM-PG with isocyanate, and the flame retardants dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), aluminum hydroxide (ATH), ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and expandable graphite (EG) were added. The physical-mechanical properties, thermal properties and flame-retardant properties of PU foams were investigated by compressive strength test, thermal conductivity test, thermo gravimetric analysis, SEM, limiting oxygen index(LOI), cone calorimeter and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The PU foamswith excellent physical-mechanical properties, thermal performance and flame retardant properties were found. With addition of 10 phr DMMP, 5 phr ATH, 15 phr APP and 20 EG, the compressive strength reaches 0.22 MPa, while thethermal stability and carbonation of foamsare improved.The SEM images show that ATH could form “villi” like substances while APP could form highly cross-linked polyphosphoric acid during combustion, which is covered on the surface of foams. The heat and flammable gas areblocked. In addition, the worm-like carbon layer formed by EG expansion can effectively shield heat.
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