内蒙古农业大学机电工程学院，内蒙古 呼和浩特 010018
基于离子聚合物金属复合材料（Ionic polymer-metal composite, IPMC）的“电能+化学能+机械能”原位驱动模式兼具驱动、传感的功能特性，具备常规刚性材料“电机驱动+机械传动”模式所不可替代的独特优势。针对原位驱动输出力不足、性能不稳定等问题，本文从分析IPMC性能提升的本质入手，综述了其电致驱动机理，阐述了利用超饱和气体法、微粒溶出工艺、冷冻干燥工艺等制备多孔Nafion基体膜的物理化学方法及其工艺特点，归纳了上述方法成型孔隙的结构特征及优缺点，同时分析了各孔隙制备工艺对IPMC性能的影响，并对后续孔隙微结构的研究进行了展望，以期为从本质上提升IPMC电致驱动性能提供实现途径，调和变形量与输出力之间的矛盾。
Different from the motor-driven and mechanical transmission mode of rigid material, ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) can function both actuation and sensing with in situ driving mode on the source of electrical, chemical and mechanical energy. According to the problems such as insufficient driving force and unstable performance of the situ driving mode, the driving mechanisms of IPMC are reviewed in this paper, through in-depth analysis of the nature of performance improvement. Besides, the technological characteristics of pore-forming process of Nafion membrane are introduced, such as super saturated gas method, particulate leaching method, freeze-drying process and other physicochemical method. The features of the porous structure formed by each process and the advantages and drawbacks of which are also analysed. In addition, this paper analyses the influence of the pore forming methods on performance of IPMC and points out some key problems that need to be solved in future research on pore microstructure of IPMC. It could be expected to provide the realizing way to intrinsically improve actuation performance of IPMC and reconcile driving force and deformation.