At present, the limitation of bio-based modifiers is that they can only improve some single aspects of the properties for fast-growing wood. To improve the comprehensive applied performance of fast-growing wood, Chinese fir, pinus sylvestris, and poplar were modified with acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) diluted by active monomer and compared the comprehensive performance of modified wood under different processing conditions. The synthesized AESO was characterized by FTIR. Moreover, the surface composition and microstructure of AESO impregnated modified wood were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and SEM and the modification mechanism was further analyzed. The results show that the comprehensive properties of the three kinds of wood were improved by impregnating the fast-growing wood and curing it at 70 °C for 6h using a mixed system with AESO: St=3:1, styrene (St) as the diluent. The properties of modified Chinese fir were improved most significantly, the impregnation yield was 166.1%, the curing weight gain percent was 157.0%, the anti-water absorption rate of 7d was 86.1%, and the compressive strength was increased by 87.2%. XPS analysis shows that the AESO impregnation system successfully penetrated into the Interior of the wood, mainly through transverse penetration. The changes of Micromorphology observed by SEM indicate that the microscopic structure of wood after the modification has not been destroyed, and the impregnation system filled and adhered to the cell walls of various structural tissues of wood and cured. pits on the cell wall were blocked, which greatly improved the anti-water absorption resistance and mechanical strength of fast-growing wood.