1.北京理工大学化学与化工学院，北京 100081;2.珠海蓉胜超微线材有限公司，广东 珠海 519000
采用1,1,2,2-四氢全氟-1-癸醇对异佛尔酮二异氰酸酯三聚体的一个异氰酸酯基进行封端，将封端后的三聚体替代部分异佛尔酮二异氰酸酯与全氟聚醚二元醇反应，合成了不同三聚体含量的支链型含氟聚氨酯。然后将支链型含氟聚氨酯配置成漆包线漆，通过高速漆包线机将其制备成漆包线。分别采用红外光谱、热重分析仪、万能试验机和接触角测试仪等对所制备的支链型含氟聚氨酯结构、热稳定性、力学性能以及疏水性进行测试；采用电压试验仪、单向刮漆试验仪、软化击穿试验仪以及焊锡试验仪等对漆包线的击穿电压、机械性能、热性能和直焊性进行测试，探究了封端三聚体含量对聚合物结构、性能以及漆包线性能的影响。结果表明，封端三聚体占比30 mol%的支链型含氟聚氨酯的拉伸强度可达30.50 MPa，断裂伸长率为952%，初始分解温度提高至216.6 ℃，接触角增大至96.1°，相较于普通的聚氨酯均有大幅提高；相应漆包线的击穿电压高达7033.8 V，而封端三聚体占比10 mol%的支链型含氟聚氨酯漆包线的击穿电压最高，达到了7513.4 V，是普通聚氨酯漆包线（4719.8V）的1.6倍。同时，机械性能、热性能和直焊性均满足聚氨酯漆包线的使用要求。
One isocyanate group of isophorone diisocyanate trimer was capped with 1,1,2,2-tetrahydro perfluoro-1-decanol. Fluorinated polyurethane containing branched chains (B-FPU) was synthesized by the reaction of different content of capped trimer, isophorone diisocyanate and perfluoropolyether diol. A solution of B-FPU in xylene and cresol was then prepared and coated on copper wires using a high-speed enameled machine to obtain enameled wires. The structures, thermal stability, mechanical properties, and hydrophobic properties of B-FPU were tested using infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyzer, universal testing machine, and contact angle tester, respectively. The breakdown voltage, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and direct solderability of enameled wires were measured using voltage tester, unidirectional scratch tester, softening breakdown tester and solder tester. The effects of capped trimer content on the structure and properties of B-FPU and the corresponding enameled wires were investigated. The results showed that the tensile strength and the elongation at break of B-FPU with 30 mol% of capped trimer were 30.50 MPa and 952%, respectively. Its initial decomposition temperature and the contact angle was increased to 216.6 ℃ and 96.1°, respectively, which were much higher than those of ordinary polyurethane. The breakdown voltage of the corresponding enameled wire was as high as 7033.8 V. The enameled wire prepared using B-FPU with 10 mol% of capped trimer showed the largest breakdown voltage of ed 7513.4 V, which was 1.6 times of 4719. V for ordinary polyurethane enameled wire. At the same time, the mechanical properties, thermal properties, and direct solderability all meet the requirements for the use of polyurethane enameled wires.